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Submarine Acquisition Project of the Philippine Navy

The Philippine Navy has embarked on the acquisition of a small fleet of diesel-electric attack submarines, which would allow the service to increase its combat capability, and taking advantage of submarine's use of underwater cover for deterrence and surprise attack against larger, more capable countries.

The Submarine Acquisition Project, currently the most expensive and most complicated project of the Philippine Navy, will provide the Philippine Navy with assets that even a small fleet of frigates may not be able to provide in terms of overall naval combat capability.

This resource page is expected to be longer than usual due to the discussion on the history of the Philippines' desire to have submarines.

The Scorpene-class submarine, which is currently the leading model selected by the Philippine Navy. Photo credits to Wikipedia.

Project Summary:

Submarine Acquisition Project:

Note: Edited as of 04 April 2021.

* End User: Philippine Navy (Offshore Combat Force)

Quantity: 2 units, plus Submarine Basing, Submarine Training facility, support equipment, training, logisitcs support, and others.


* Modernization Phase:
 2nd List of Horizon 2 Phase of RAFPMP


* Project ABC:
 Approx. Php75,000,000,000.00


Acquisition Mode: Government-to-Government (G2G) Process with still unknown country.

* Source of Funding: Soft loan financing, to be paid via GAA Funds through AFP Modernization Program Trust Fund


* SARO Release/s: 
TBA


* Winning Proponent: TBA


Product for Delivery: TBA


* Contract Price: TBA


* First post by MaxDefense: 


* MaxDefense Searching Hashtag: #PNSubmarineAcquisition 


* Status: Philippine Navy shortlists Naval Group and DSME as of 2019, top selection with Naval Group using Scorpene-class CM-2000 diesel-electric submarine. Discussions and negotiations ongoing with Naval Group and French government for final price, soft loan financing, and package inclusions.



Overview
:

The Philippine Navy has been aspiring to acquire submarines since the 1950s, but has been unsuccessful in many attempts. Either the Philippines was restricted by the American government in acquiring submarine technology, and when this was lifted, the Americans has not been able to transfer submarines for believing that the Philippine government cannot support such capability.

In the early 1950s, the Philippine Navy requested for 3 World War 2 era diesel submarines from the US government, together with PBY Catalina flying boats. In the end, only the flying boats arrived, which were assigned later on to the Philippine Air Force.

The Philippines requested for 2 Balao-class submarines from the US in the 1950s, but this was not provided. Credits to original source for photo.

In the 1970s, former Philippine Pres. Ferdinand E. Marcos expressed his desire to acquire submarines from other countries, specifically diesel-electric models from friendly countries like US and Germany. 

For the past several decades, the US Navy has stopped operating diesel-electric submarines, and has converted to an all-nuclear submarine force. This has deprived the Philippines from getting surplus submarines from the US as nuclear submarines are a no-go for obvious reasons.

The last diesel-electric attack submarines of the US Navy, the Tang-class, were already almost 30 years in the late 1970s when the Philippine government requested for the transfer of at least 2 units as part of the 1977-1981 AFP Modernization Program. The request for them were rejected by the US government.

Tang-class diesel-electric submarine of the US Navy. The Philippines requested for transfer of 2 submarines, but was rejected in the late 1970s. Credits to original source of photo.

With the last diesel-electric submarines from the US already gone, this means the Philippines cannot expect the US to help in its submarine aspirations. 

There were queries made with the German government back then for the small Type 206 coastal submarine, and larger Type 209 submarine, although that is as far as the Philippines has gone back then.

And with the Philippine economy tanking out in the 1980s, further attempts stopped on such program.

The submarine desire continued on until the 1980s up to the 1990s, when former Philippine Navy FOIC (now Maritime Academy of Asia and the Pacific President) Vice Adm. Eduardo Ma. Santos endorsed in 1998 the concept of the Philippine Navy having submarines under the AFP Modernization Program mandated by RA 7898 and approved in 1995, and opened up the possibility of acquiring midget submarines from Italy's Cosmo S.p.a. as a preliminary move, while moving on to conventional diesel-electric submarines in the near future. It also appears that the Philippine Navy sent officers to Pakistan to study their midget submarines built locally based on a design acquired from Italy.


The Cosmo MG120/ER midget submarine, which was considered by the Philippine Navy back then should they push to acquire midget submarines to train and familiarise the service in Submarine Warfare. Photo taken from Cosmo Spa through Maritime Review Philippines.

Aside from that, the Department of National Defense even sent a Philippine Navy officer to study submarine design and construction in preparation for any future requirement to acquire new submarines.

The AFP Modernization Program from 1995 to 2010 passed without the Philippine Navy acquiring submarines, or even a meaningful surface fleet that it can actually say as modern. And it was only natural that submarines will again be floated for acquisition when the Revised AFP Modernization Program mandated by RA 10349 was approved in 2013.

In the Revised Philippine Navy Modernization plan as shown on the "Desired Force Mix" released by the PN in 2014, the plan was to acquire at least 3 conventional diesel-electric submarines within the 2013-2028 timeframe. 

The Philippine Navy Desired Force Mix plan released in 2014, as a guideline of acquisitions for the Revised AFP Modernization Program between 2013 to 2028. Photo credits to the old Timawa.net forum.


In 2015, another info-graphic was released by the Philippine Navy, again with the conventional diesel-electric submarine still in the acquisition plan, but clearly defined to be part of the Horizon 3 phase from 2023 to 2028.

The Philippine Navy's infographic released in 2015 on expected acquisitions under the Revised AFP Modernization Program from 2013 to 2028. It shows that the Submarines are to be acquired in the Horizon 3 phase from 2023 to 2028. Photo taken from the Philippine Navy's website.

Finally, another info-graphic was published by the Philippine Navy in their April 2016 official publications, indicating that the Submarines are integral part of the Surface Action Force of the Philippine Fleet. In a departure from previous plans, it now indicates that the Philippine Navy will need to acquire 6 submarines instead of just 3 to provide a better deterrent capability.


This infographic was released by the Philippine Navy in April 2016, shows that the Philippine Navy will now require 6 conventional diesel-electric submarines for the Revised Navy acquisition plan from 2013 to 2028. Photo screenshots taken from the Philippine Navy's official publication.

This was later on supported by the submissions made by the Philippine Navy for their Capability Plan under the Horizon 1 to 3 phases, wherein they submitted in 2016 a plan to acquire 2 conventional diesel-electric submarines within the Horizon 2 phase, and 4 more similar submarines in the Horizon 3 phase.

This was taken from one of the submitted reports of the Armed Forces of the Philippines to the Department of National Defense in 2016 which highlights the proposed acquisition program of the Philippine Navy from Horizon 1 (and remnants of the old RA7898 AFPMP), as well as the Horizon 2 and 3 phases of the Revised AFPMP. It clearly indicated the need for 6 submarines, in which 2 to be acquired in Horizon 2 phase. Photo taken from MaxDefense's sources from the Philippine Navy.


Between 2016 to 2017, further improvements were made by the Philippine Navy for their Horizon 2 and 3 phases proposal for submission to the Office of the President. With a new president at the helm of the country with promises to improve the Armed Forces of the Philippines into new heights, the Philippine Navy again tweaked their acquisition proposal under the Horizon 2 phase. Instead of just acquiring 2 conventional diesel-electric submarines, they now moved even more aggressively forward by instead requesting a fleet of 3 conventional diesel-electric submarines worth Php20 billion each, 7 Midget Submarines for Php5 billion each, and 6 two-man Swimmer Delivery Vehicles for Php35 million each. 

This is by far the most ambitious proposal made by the Philippine Navy, and was among those submitted to the Office of the President in Malacanang in early 2017 as part of the Php367.7 billion Horizon 2 program for the Philippine Navy alone.

Aside from that, the Philippine Navy has finally made a Submarine Group in its command under the Philippine Fleet, to allow the study of submarine and submarine warfare, as well as prepare the Philippine Navy in its acquisition of submarines. Officers and men assigned to this group were given the chance to study abroad on basics in submarine warfare as well as in submarine construction.

The last version of the proposals made for Horizon 2 phase included the acquisition of 3 conventional diesel-electric submarines, 7 midget submarines and 6 swimmer delivery vehicles, all for a total proposed budget of Php95.21 billion. This proposal was shot down by the government due to high costs. The resulting approved Horizon 2 acquisition did not include any submarines. Photo taken from MaxDefense sources from the DND.


Unfortunately, the aggressiveness might be too much, as the proposal was shut down by Pres. Rodrigo Duterte and his economic team due to the high price of the proposal. The Philippine Navy was again requested to revise their program to under Php75 billion pesos only. The result of this became part of the recently approved Php300 billion Horizon 2 Priority Projects program, wherein the Philippine Navy is getting Php77.6 billion only.

In this approved acquisition program, none of the submarines proposed earlier were included. Not even the two-man Swimmer Delivery Vehicles was there. Instead, any submarine acquisition will be made in the Horizon 3 phase of the RAFPMP, which is scheduled from 2023 to 2028, or on a proposed 2nd List of Horizon 2 which will depend on the capacity of the government to pay for it.


Nonetheless, the Submarine Group continued to exist and continue its mandated task of preparing the Philippine Navy for submarine operations.

Then the unexpected happened when in June 2018, DND's Public Affairs Dir. Arsenio Andolong announced that Pres. Duterte and Defense Sec. Delfin Lorenzana has agreed to the request made by then Philippine Navy FOIC Vice Adm. Robert Empedrad to front-load the acquisition of at least 2 submarines into the Horizon 2 phase, using the 2nd List of Horizon 2 program.

No specific budget has been announced for the Submarine Project, but it is expected to be beyond Php40 billion for 2 submarines.

MaxDefense PH confirmed that it has documents showing that the Submarine Acquisition Project may go as high as Php75 billion due to the inclusion of construction of a new Submarine Base, a Submarine Training Facility, new support facilities for Submarine operations, and acquisition of equipment to support the submarine fleet.

Despite the high cost, MaxDefense PH was informed that Pres. Duterte intends to have the submarine acquisition his legacy project for the Philippine Navy, and will push for it to be made, considering offers were also submitted for the use of soft loans or financial assistance from the supplying country's government.

This means that any submarine acquisition would be done through Government-to-Government (G2G) deal.


Offers Made to the Philippine Navy:

As early as the Submarine Group's formation, the Philippine Navy has already released a Request for Information (RFI) addressed to several international submarine builders to provide information about their respective products. This is to allow the Philippine Navy to determine what can be acquired with the proposed budget.


According to MaxDefense's sources from the Philippine Navy, among those that replied and provided information are Saab Group - Kockums of Sweden, ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems (TKMS) of Germany, Naval Group (formerly DCNS) of France, Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering (DSME) of South Korea, and Rosoboronexport of Russia.

Based on information we gathered, the offers made by these shipbuilders were: a derivative of the A26 submarine design from Saab Kockums, the Type 209/1400, Type 210mod, and Type 212A from TKMS, a derivative of the Scorpene-class from the Naval Group, the Chang Bogo-class from DSME, and the Project 636 Kilo-class from Rosoboronexport.

Aside from providing information on their submarine products, these shipbuilders already came forward with providing different offers to the Philippine Navy. It appears that numerous meetings have already been made between the Department of National Defense and/or the Philippine Navy, and these foreign shipbuilders or their counterpart defense ministries. 

TKMS, DSME, Saab Kockums and Naval Group executives were reported to have visited the Philippine Navy and the DND for meetings in the between 2017 and 2018, with the DND's team led by Defense Asec. Jesus Avilla even met with DSME executives in South Korea just last March 2018 as part of the PH-SK Joint Committee Meeting, including a visit to one of the Republic of Korea Navy's Chang Bogo-class submarine ROKS Park Wi, which is now in Hawaii participating in RIMPAC 2018.


TKMS was said to be offering the Type 210mod (top) and Type 209/1400, while DSME offered the Chang Bogo-class submarine (above) which is actually a Korean version of the Type 209/1400. Credits to sources of photos.


By 2019, based on the statements of the DND and Philippine Navy officials, the PN appears to have already shortlisted its plans between DSME's offer (supported by the South Korean government), and the Naval Group's offer (supported by the French government).

A decision has become apparent by 2020, with the MaxDefense PH reporting that the Philippine Navy has selected the Naval Group proposal with the Scorpene-class submarine. No Air Independent Propulsion (AIP) system would be included, using the CM-2000 conventional design variant.

A Scorpene-class submarine being moved from Naval Group's production line in France. Photo credits to original source.


Also said to be included are the French Navy and Naval Group's assistance in the formation of the PN's Submarine Force, the construction of a new Submarine Base, and new Submarine Training Facility, acquisition of support equipment, and several other inclusions.

A credit line was also proposed by the French government to allow the acquisition despite the lack of funding from the Philippine side. This would be paid in multiple years, and would be low interest and may even include a counter trade offer.

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U P  D A T E S:
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25 August 2018:


He mentioned that they are still in the process of choosing between the offers made, and has not made a confirmation on Russia's offer. He placed more emphasis on the Russian offer, which MaxDefense believes is Pres. Duterte's choice, and the Korean offer which MaxDefense believes is Lorenzana's preference. 

He alao mentioned that affordability is also a big factor in deciding, which means both acquisition cost and annual sustainment costs. Lorenzana confirmed that the Russian submarine is more expensive but better, probably comparing it to the Korean offer considering both German and French offers are expected to be more expensive than the Russian offer.

The Russian Project 636.3 Improved Kilo class is expected to be more expensive to operate due to its larger size than the Korean Chang Bogo-class, which means it also consumes more fuel to propel. Russian hardware are also notorious globally as being more expensive to maintain due to their shorter Time Between Overhaul or Maintenance compared to other equivalent.

A Project 636 Kilo-class submarine, this example with the Indian Navy. Photo credits to original source.

This statement by the Defense Secretary may show some leaning on the Korean offer. And it is also close to Philippine Navy FOIC Vice Adm. Robert Empedrad's recent statement that interoperability is a major factor in deciding what submarine to acquire. Compared to the Improved Kilo-class, the Chang Bogo-class is easier to specify to use data sharing and communication equipment that will be compatible and interoperable with the PN and AFP's current and future C4ISTAR system, and in effect, compatible and interoperable with allied and partner navies and militaries of the Philippines.

===============

03 October 2018:

As part of their display during the recently concluded ADAS 2018 defense expo in Manila, Korean shipbuilder DSME focused on their offer for submarines for the Philippine Navy (PN) based on their DSME1400 design, which is said to be an improvement over the Chang Bogo-class made for the Republic of Korea Navy (ROKN).

DSME's brochure on the DSME1400 also included what they call the "DSME Full Package Program" which will provide the totality of the requirements needed by the end user, in this case the Philippine Navy, should they pick their submarine solution.

Among those they are willing to provide are as follows:
1. Building of most reliable & cost effective submarine;
2. Training and Co-exercises;
3. Transfer of Technology & Local Support;
4. Transfer of Expertise & Experience;
5. Long Term Logistics Support;
6. Guarantee & Support of (South Korean) Government
7. FINANCIAL SUPPORT (Soft Loan)

All 7 features are actually what the Philippine Navy needs for them to achieve a successful submarine program. In short, DSME is willing to provide the end user with a submarine program from scratch, most definitely based on South Korea's own experience.

Last March 2018, the DND held talks with the ROKN's Submarine Command, wherein they made a commitment to help the PN build up its submarine force from scratch, and has actually offered DSME's submarine solutions, and are willing also to provide consultancy to the PN as approved by both the governments of the Philippines and South Korea. They also made a commitment to continue offering training programs to PN personnel of submarine warfare, especially if the PN choose a Korean solution which is actually the DSME offer.

As for financing, DSME included an option for Financial Support and Soft Loan for the acquisition of submarines, which means that Russia isn't the only one now offering this option, but also South Korea. MaxDefense will explain other offers on the PN's Submarine Acquisition tomorrow.



Photo credits to Benedict Exconde through MaxDefense PH.

===============

29 July 2019:

Media reports confirm that the Philippines is considering the Scorpene-class submarine from France's Naval Group.

From Asia Pacific Defense Journal:

Philippines considers Scorpene-class diesel electric submarine for submarine program

A Scorpene-class diesel electric attack submarine. Photo c/o Navy Recognition.

The Philippines Secretary of National Defense Sec. Delfin Lorenzana confirmed in an interview with the local media that the Philippine Navy (PN) has included the Scorpene-class diesel electric submarine of French shipyard Naval Group as one of the platforms being considered for its Submarine acquisition program. 

A team from the Department of National Defense (DND) led by Sec. Lorenzana will be visiting 5 European countries including France, and is scheduled to visit the Naval Group’s facilities and look at their submarine production and technology.

The Scorpene-class is available in four standard variants: a standard conventional diesel-electric variant called the CM-2000, a variant with Air Independent Propulsion (AIP) system called the AM-2000, a downsized coastal patrol variant called the CA-2000, and an enlarged variant which is currently used by the Brazilian Navy called the S-BR variant.

The PN has been finding ways to secure funding for the acquisition of 2 or 3 new diesel-electric attack submarines, and is open to securing soft loans as part of a government-to-government negotiation with the submarine builder’s government of origin. 

Other countries that made their pitch to help fund and supply submarines were Russia, South Korea, and Germany.

It is believed that the PN is after the standard CM-2000 variant, which has a displacement of around 1,565 tons, a length of 61.7 meters, a beam of 6.2 meters, and a draft of 5.8 meters. The CM-2000 variant has a maximum speed of 20 knots while submerged, and 12 knots when surfaced. It has a maximum range of 6,500 nautical miles at 8 knots and surfaced, or 550 nautical miles at 5 knots when submerged.

The entire class has a standard fit of six 533mm torpedo tubes for a mix on heavyweight torpedoes, mines, and the MBDA SM39 Exocet anti-ship missile.

The Scorpene-class is currently in service with the Chilean Navy, Indian Navy, Royal Malaysian Navy, and is being built for the Brazilian Navy.

===============


01 October 2019:

During the 2020 defense budget hearing for the DND, Sen. Tolentino asked about the Submarine Acquisition plans of the Philippine Navy.

No other than Philippine Navy FOIC Vice Adm. Robert Empedrad confirmed that despite offers from South Korea and Russia, the offer from France is the best fit to their requirements, and that the French are the preferred supplier. Two submarines will be delivered by 2027 as per PN procurement plan.

France's Naval Group is the only French naval shipbuilder offering submarines, with their Scorpene-class submarine together with technical assistance on building up the PN's submarine capability and basing. The French government and French Navy will also provide assistance on financing, training, and logistics support.

In addition, Defense Sec. Delfin Lorenzana also confirmed that there is no scheduled discussion on submarines between the Philippines and Russia as part of Pres. Duterte's visit to Moscow this week. 

===============

04 December 2019:

With Defense Sec. Delfin Lorenzana confirming his visit to France last week, we could probably start filling out some details from the trip.

This visit was long overdue after Sec. Lorenzana failed to make his commitment to meet his French counterparts from the French Ministry of the Armies last September.

The focus of this visit by Sec. Lorenzana is on the Submarine Acquisition Project of the Philippine Navy. Although there were several French offers to the Armed Forces of the Philippines, separate visits were made by AFP and DND officials for them.

According to MaxDefense PH's sources, Sec. Lorenzana met with officials of France's Naval Group, and was given a first-hand tour of their facilities in Cherbourg which is where NG builds submarines for the French Navy and export customers, including the Scorpene-class submarine.

Also discussed during the visit were on the French Ministry of the Armies regarding the planned Government-to-Government (G2G) deal between France and the Philippines should the DND proceed with the order for the Scorpene package (which MaxDefense might discuss in a blog entry next year).
Also discussed during the visit were the financing options which include soft loans, considering the package offered by the French government and Naval Group includes not just the submarines itself, but also the technical support, spares and logistics support, training and education including cross-trainings with the French Navy and continuing programs by Defense Conseil International (DCI), basing consultancy, design and construction, possible transfer of technology for maintenance and support, and many other considerations. This jacks up the price of the package beyond the unit cost of the submarines.

The visit of Sec. Lorenzana was also to check on the French government's commitment to proceed with such sale, despite the growing negative perception towards the Philippine government by European countries with regards to Human Rights, Extra Judicial Killings, and other liberal issues. 

The point that the French government is proceeding with its offer means that they are committed to not waste their and the Filipino's time and effort to make this happen, and are willing to go for the sale despite these lingering issues.

It is expected that the final decision will be made next year, since the government has not provided any funds yet for the initial payment requirements (deposits) for 2019. But this move was meant to make sure that the Philippine Navy and Department of National Defense can commit to their selection and decision while waiting for the money to be available for the project's implementation.

Naval Group's submarine production facility. Photo credits to original source.

===============

20 October 2020:

French shipbuilder Naval Group confirmed at Euronaval 2020, that despite the COVID-19 pandemic, they had intense discussions with the Philippines, although nothing has been set in stone yet.

It would be remembered that MaxDefense previously posted that the Philippine Navy's selected option was the offer from France's Naval Group, which offered the Scorpene-class diesel-electric attack submarine, as well as assisting in building a submarine basing and training facility, and training Philippine Navy crew on submarine operations and maintenance.

Its closest competitor at the moment is an offer from South Korea's Daewoo Shipbuilding Marine Engineering (DSME) with their Improved Chang Bogo-class. 

MaxDefense sources from the PN confirmed that the offer from South Korea was cheaper, but the PN's Technical Working Group and PN leadership have concerns due to news from Indonesia that there were problems with the Nagapasa-class (Indonesian version of Improved Chang Bogo-class) that are not related to its local construction by PT PAL, but stems out from design and manufacturing issues from DSME.

Meanwhile, Naval Group's offer was more expensive, but the submarines itself are far more modern than the South Korean offer which was based on the old German Type 209-1400 design. And the offer was more comprehensive, meaning it includes a lot more packaged items that covers  sustaining the submarines for the next few years, and building up the PN's capabilities in submarine warfare.

=================

21 October 2020:

Philippine Defense Resource posted this video in our Youtube Channel, discussing the Scorpene-class' selection for the Philippine Navy's Submarine Acquisition Project.




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23 December 2020:

Recently, Foreign Affairs Sec. Teddy Boy Locsin posted in his Twitter account that the Philippines is getting French submarines.

While the Philippine Navy has been pushing for French Scorpene-class diesel attack submarines, it remains to be seen if the DND will support the PN's selection since they themselves are pushing the PN to consider the South Korean offer based on the DSME 1400 submarine.

It is good to know that Sec. Locsin is supportive of the French submarine offer, and there is a possibility that high-level decision making within the executive cabinets on the potential selection of the French offer are already happening. 

So far, we received confirmation that France and Naval Group's offer includes 2 submarines (can be increased depending on availability of more funds), training with French defense institutions and the French Navy, assisting in designing and construction of a new submarine base with training and support facilities, doctrine formulation on submarine warfare, and providing soft loans and French government support and guarantees.

South Korea's offer is similar but, according to PN sources, is less comparable to the French offer, and the submarines being offered as less capable than the French Scorpenes.

Unfortunately, the government has not allocated any funding for the Submarine Acquisition Project yet, even for the 2021 defense and modernization funding.

Taken from Sec. Locsin's Twitter account.

===============

14 March 2021:

The Philippine Navy, led by its FOIC Vice Adm. Giovanni Bacordo, visited the French Navy and met with his French counterpart French Navy Chief of Naval Staff Admiral Pierre Vandier at Ecole'Militaire, Paris, France.

The PN was briefed on French Navy thrust and direction, and French submarine organization and capability.

Further, the Staff-to-Staff discussions on French submarine organization and capability concept has provided important inputs of utmost consideration in the establishment of Philippine Navy’s Submarine Force. Joining Vice Admiral Bacordo during the bilateral talks are Capt Edwin M Nera, Commander, Submarine Group and Capt Emerson C David, Director, PN Modernization Office.

Significantly, the Chief of the French Navy has expressed support in the efforts of the PN in capability development, wherein their Directorate for General Armaments (DGA) and Défense Conseil international (DCI) can assist for the aspects of acquisition and training, respectively.



Photos credits to Philippine Navy.

===============

16 March 2021:

The Philippine Navy, led by its FOIC Vice Adm. Giovanni Bacordo, visited Naval Group's shipyard facility in Cherbourg, France, and also visited the French Navy's submarine facilities in Toulon.

This is part of the Philippine Navy's interest in Naval Group's offer for the Submarine Acquisition Project, with Naval Group said to be leading in the selection with its Scorpene-class diesel-electric attack submarine.


Photo of PN delegation together with Naval Group officials in Cherbourg, France. Photo credits to Naval Group.

===============

04 April 2021:

MaxDefense posted an article from the French government confirming that the French Treasury Ministry has been in talks with the Philippine government regarding the use of French financing for the acquisition of submarines and building a submarine force for the Philippine Navy.

The visit a few weeks ago by French Ambassador to the Philippines Michelle Boccoz to the Philippine Department of National Defense and meeting with Defense Sec. Delfin Lorenzana actually gave focus to this, considering the PN's visits to Naval Group and the French Navy.

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First edit and release: 04 April 2021
Copyright MaxDefense Philippines / Philippine Defense Resource

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